Aspal Emulsi

Aspal emulsi adalah campuran dari aspal minyak (petroleum bitumen), air dan zat kimia yang disebut emulsifier. Aspal yang merupakan keluarga minyak bisa bercampur dengan air dengan bantuan emulsifier melalui proses emulsifikasi. Pada proses emulsifikasi, aspal dijadikan butiran yang sangat kecil (0,1 – 20 mikron) dan diberi muatan listrik statis oleh emulsifier. Akibat adanya muatan listrik ini, terjadi gaya saling tolak antara butiran aspal (asphalt droplets) sehingga aspal tersebar secara merata dalam media air dan menjadi emulsi. Gaya saling tolak ini cukup stabil sehingga aspal tidak menyatu kembali. Seluruh proses ini terjadi dalam alat yang disebut “Colloid Mill”. Pemilihan aspal, jenis emulsifier dan colliod mill sangat mempengaruhi mutu aspal emulsi yang dihasilkan.

Komposisi Aspal Emulsi CRS


Phasa padat terdiri atas aspal keras pen40/50 atau pen 60/70 atau pen 80/100 yang memenuhi persyaratan SNIM-30-1990,ditambah kerosin sedemikian rupa sehingga menjadi aspal keras pen I80/200.Untuk aspal keras pen 60/70, agar diperoleh aspal keras pen 180/200,kerosin yang ditambahkan berkisar antara 2% sampal 4% terhadap berataspal.Pedoman Teknik No.024/T/BM/199912 Kadar phasa padat dalam Aspal Emulsi jenis CRS harus sedemikian rupa sehingga Aspa lEnulsi memiliki kadar residu penyulingan minimum 65%.

Phasa Cair

Phasa cair terdiri atas Bahan Pengemulsi, Asam Klorida dan Kalsium Klorida yang dilarutkan dalam air. Kadar masing-masing bahan tersebut dalam Aspal Emulsi adalah sebagai berikut

a)Bahan Pengemulsi dan Asam Klorida Jumlah Bahan Pengemulsi dan asam Klorida dalam Aspal Emulsi tergatung pada jenis Bahan Pengemulsi dan jumlah phasa padat dalam Aspal Emulsi.JumlahBahanPengemulsi dalam Aspal Emulsi umumnya antara 0,25% sampai 1,5%.Untuk mengetahui jumlah Bahan Pengemulsi dan Asam Klorida perkiraan dalam Aspal Emulsi dapat berkonsultasi pada produsen atau distributor beban tersebut.Kadar Bahan Pengemulsi dan Asam Klorida optimum diketahui dengan cara membuat beberapa contoh Aspal Emulsi dengan kadar emulgator dan Asam Klorida hervariasi di atas dan di bawah kadar Bahan Pengemulsi atau Asam Klorida perkiraan, sedang kadar phasa padat tetap sesuai Butir

1.Masing-masing contoh tersebut selanjutnya diuji nilai pengendapan satu hari(SKSNI M-07-1994-03) dan nilai pengujian saringan (SNI03-196I81990). Kadar Bahan Pengemulsi dan Asam Klorida optimum adalah kadar yang memberikan nilai pengendapan satu hari dalam pengujian saringan terkecil serta tidak menyebabkan pembusaan yang berlebihan dalam Aspal Emulsi.

b)Kalsium Klorida Jumlah Kalsium Klorida dalam Aspal Emulsi berkisar antara 0°/° sampai 0,3%.Jumlah Kalsium Klorida optimum dalam Aspal Emulsi ditentukan berdasarkan percobaan dilaboratorium dengan cara membuat beberapa contoh Aspal Emulsi dengan variasi kadar Kalsium Klorida dari 0 sampai 0,3%, sedang kadar phasa padat,Bahan Pengemulsi dan Asam Klorida tetap . a) diatas.Contoh.Aspal Emulsi tersebut diuji nilai Pedoman Teknik No.024/T/BM/199913  pengendapan satu hari dan nilai saringan.Kadar Kalsium Klorida optimum adalah kadar yang memberikan Aspal Emulsi nilai pengendapan satu hari dan nilai pengujian saringan terkecil. c)Air Jumlah air dalam Aspal Emulsi adalah 100% dikurangi kadar phasa padat, Bahan Pengemulsi, Asam Klorida Klorida.Phasa cair dibuat dengan melarutkan Bahan Pengemulsi, Asam Klorida dan Kalsium Klorida dalam air dengan jumlah masing-masing bahan sesuai percobaan di atas.

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